What’s the Big Deal? : Stakeholder hopes for COP21


  • Mitigation: reduction in emissions of major emitters
  • Transparency: UN oversight to be sure countries fulfill pledges
  • Monetary assistance for less-developed countries


  • Negotiators will do a better job reaching a deal than heads of state (learned from Copenhagen 2009)
  • Would limit warming to 2C or less
  • Encouraging mobilization of $100 billion from developed countries to help less-developed countries adapt
  • Pushing climate deals involving technological innovation, cooperation and transfer
  • Green development and broad participation


  • Primarily concerned that economy not be hindered
  • Wants to keep using coal to fuel growth

Alliance of Small Island States[4]

  • Would limit warming to 1.5C
  • Wants to leave with an agreement on loss and damage due to climate change (e.g. coral bleaching for nations that depend on reefs for breaking waves and tourism)
  • Wants transparency, to ensure all countries fulfill pledge
  • Focusing on adaptation, especially for sea-level rise


  • Needs economically sustainable option to regain popular support for pledge

India [6]

  • wants technical support to expand use of solar
  • transparency, to ensure that everyone meets their pledge
  • Strong decrease in emissions from top polluters (e.g. US, UK)

Latin America[7]

  • Wants pledge that will limit global warming to 1.5~2C
  • Desires technological and financial support from more-developed countries
  • Focusing on adaptation within Latin America
  • Trying to attract clean energy investment: needs support from private sector


  • Justice: asks developed countries to fund adaptation for less-developed countries at risk of being strongly impacted by climate change.
  • Cannot and will not assume more monetary obligation


[1] Todd Stern, Chief US Climate Envoy, on climatechangenews.com

[2] Xie Zhenghua, China’s top climate change negotiator, 23 November 2015: http://uk.reuters.com/article/2015/11/23/uk-climatechange-china-idUKKBN0TC0Y020151123

Xi Jinping, President of China, 30 November 2015:


[3] http://www.climatechangenews.com/2015/07/17/japan-submits-26-emissions-reduction-target-to-un/

[4] http://aosis.org/small-islands-co-chairs-text-fall-short-in-bonn/

[5] http://www.climatechangenews.com/2015/11/25/uk-axes-1bn-carbon-capture-fund-in-blow-to-green-credentials/



[6] http://www.climatechangenews.com/2015/11/24/solar-v-coal-can-india-shift-from-fossils-to-sunbeams-fast-enough/



[7] 29 November, 2015:


[8] Robert Mugabe, president of Zimbabwe, 30 November 2015.



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